## Irrigations (Laboratory)

At the laboratory part of this lesson are presenting issues related to Irrigations in Agriculture in order to understand the dynamics and the application value of Irrigations. Also it is important to learn the ways they will think and address the complex irrigation problems. They must understand the most appropriate and cost effective method of irrigation constructions. Also basic aim is the economotechnical investigation in different techniques used in rendering process of Irrigations in agriculture.

### Objectives

Upon successful completion of this lesson the student : • has demonstrated knowledge and understanding of issues relating to irrigation networks, design, organization and construction method. • is able to use the knowledge and understanding in a way that shows professional approach to work, to have skills proved by developing and supporting arguments and solve implementation problems of crop irrigation. • is able to notify ideas and solutions to problems related to crop irrigation at both specialist and non-specialist audience. • has developed those skills to learn in order to continue his/her study in high level in a particular subject.

### Prerequisites

You do not need prerequisite knowledge.

### Syllabus

Exercise 1st : Fluids properties. ( Basic units - Density – Relative density –Consistency or viscosity - Vapor pressure - Surface tension – Fluid pressure - Elasticity - Physical properties of water in SI units SI - Physical properties at normal atmospheric pressure in units SI). Exercise 2nd : Hydrostatic. ( Hydrostatic pressure - Pascal principle - Altitude pressure variation in a fluid – Hydrostatic pressure measurements – Hydrostatics pressure on surfaces) Exercise 3rd : Hydrodynamic. (Fluid flow - Continuity equation - Energy equation – Momentum equation - Power ) Exercise 4th : Study of sprinkler irrigation system. Preliminary work. {Project technical description, Location description (location, topographic chart). Climatological data. Soil data. Hydrological data (Source - quantity - quality of water) – Crop data}. Exercise 5th : Study of sprinkler irrigation system. Crop water consumption. (Evapotranspiration. Penman to Doorenbos – Pruit. Penman modified method – Monteith method. Blaney – Criddle modified method. Blaney – Criddle simplified method. The effective rainfall. Daily water deficit. Irrigation water dose. Irrigation range). Exercise 6th and Exercise 7th : Study of sprinkler irrigation system. Sprinkler position in the system. {Sprinklers provision – Sprinklers characteristics - The number of sprinklers on the line - The number of irrigation lines - Sprinklers total number – Sprinklers supply – Irrigation dose calculation}. Exercise 8th: Under pressure flow in closed pipes. (Darcy - Weisbach equation- Calculation of the friction coefficient f, Colebrook – White equation – Problems with under pressure pipes, monograms use and approximate equations - Solving problems using PC). Exercise 9th and Exercise 10th : Study of sprinkler irrigation system. Pipelines dimensioning. (Pipeline types – Supply types – Nomenclature of pipelines. – Application pipelines. [Application pipelines supply – Accepted load losses – Diameter calculations with a) speed criterion b) casualties criterion c) shock criterion d) cost criterion]. Secondary pipelines. [Supply – Accepted load losses – Diameter calculations.] Adaptation pipeline. Exercise 11η : Open channel flow. (Calculation types of uniform flow in open channels - Solving problems in open channels) Exercise 12η : Study of sprinkler irrigation system. Pumping station. (Pump flow rate – pump manometric height – Pumping station power – Pumping station supply). Exercise 13η : Study of sprinkler irrigation system. (Channel feed calculation - Sluice calculation - Spillway calculation)

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