The Maastricht Treaty stipulated that every person holding the nationality of a Member State is considered as a citizen of the Union. The establishment of European citizenship is intended to strengthen and promote the European identity by greater involvement of citizens in the integration process. Thanks to the development of the single market, citizens enjoy certain general rights in various areas such as free movement of goods and services, consumer protection and public health, equal opportunities and treatment, access to employment and social protection. Furthermore, the European Union citizenship includes provisions and special rights gathered in four categories: • freedom of movement and residence within the Union, • right to vote and stand in municipal elections in the Member State of residence, • diplomatic and consular protection of any Member State in third countries, which is not represented by the Member State of which a citizen is a national, • right of petition to the European Parliament and access to the Ombudsman. Although the exercise of these rights is subject to certain restrictions laid down in the Treaties or in secondary legislation as in possession of European citizenship, the right of access to the Ombudsman and to petition the European Parliament applies to all natural and legal persons residing in the territory of EU Member States. Similarly, human rights apply to every person residing in the European Union. The Amsterdam Treaty completes the list of the rights of Union citizens and clarifies the link between national citizenship and European citizenship. Where no specific provisions on fundamental rights in the founding treaties, the European Court has progressively drawn up an effective system for safeguarding fundamental rights at Union level. Two key elements facilitated the action of the Court: - Article 220 (ex Article 164) of the Treaty establishing the European Community, which provides that the Court ensures respect for the law in the interpretation and application of the Treaty, - The political dimension of Community integration which is based on a European social model that guarantees recognized by the Member States fundamental rights. In view of fundamental rights, the drafters of the Treaty of Amsterdam officially confirmed respect for human rights. The new Treaty provides in particular: - Amending Article 6 (ex Article F) of the Treaty on European Union in order to consolidate the principle of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, - Establish a procedure to be followed in case of breach by a Member State of the principles on which the Union is founded, - Effectively combating discrimination not only those based on ethnicity, but also any form of discrimination based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation, - The inclusion of new provisions on equality between men and women in the Treaty establishing the European Community, - Enhanced protection of individuals with regard to the processing and disclosure of personal data, - The incorporation in the Final Act the declarations for the abolition of the death penalty, respect for the status of churches and non-confessional organizations as well as the needs of people with disabilities.


Acquisition of basic knowledge on EU citizenship and the recognized and protected fundamental rights under EU law (primary and secondary). The central objective is the formation of conscious and sensitized European citizens


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1) European Citizenship and Fundamental Rights (Introductive Course) 2) European citizenship and identity (part 1) 3) European citizenship and identity (part 2) 4) European Fundamental Rights Protection Map 5) Code of Greek Citizenship - Acquisition of Citizenship 6) Rights European citizenship - European Social Charter 7) Sources of Law and Legal Pluralism in the EU 8) Citizenship and Rights in Greek and Roman Antiquity 9) Human rights in the European Union 10) European citizenship, shared political and moral values for the EU






Instructors: Panagiotis Grigoriou
Department: Sociology
Institution: Aegean University
Subject: Sociology
Rights: CC - Attribution

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